Uluslararası İlişkiler Yüksek Lisans Programı / International Relations Master's Degree Program

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 36
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Language Policy and the Linguistic Rights in Syria: The Kurdish Language a Pattern
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) SULAIMAN, MOHAMMAD ISSA; Nazlı Çağın Bilgili
    Language policy is a tool for regulating State-building and allocating resources among different language groups. However, in some countries with ethnic-language groups, the language policy is a source of conflicts between language groups and the state because of its symbolic value for the ethnic groups. The attitude of language groups towards the language policy in the state is shaped by their comprehension of language policy and their relations with the state; therefore, those language groups head for perceive Language in different ways as well, and they have different demands, with different demands, with different paths. This study investigates the Kurdish situation in Syria from a language perspective. Syria has been conflict-stricken since 2011. This conflict is partially in the policy of the ruling ethnic majority, being practised since the establish the country after WWI against the minority. This policy's best manifestation has been in the language domain, where the state has adopted various assimilatory strategies against ethnic minority groups, chief among which has been the Kurdish community. The Kurds are an ethno-language group whose citizenship has often been previously questionable. As a result, the Syrian state's language policy has led to tripled minoritization and oppression of the Kurds. Therefore, my study will prove vital to understanding the state's assimilatory strategies in the domain of language in a multiethnic polity such as Syria. My paper will study the Kurdish language status in Syria in creating the national identity for Kurds in Syria. Also, it will attend to the government's sociolinguistic and Language policies and planning. Through this study, I will investigate the state documents (Constitutions, Decrees, internal status for government institutions, and organizations), the publications released by Kurds in Syria and interviews with the representatives of Kurds in Syria. Further, the study will investigate the linguistics justice from the human rights approach and the issue of protecting minority languages and linguistic diversity in establishing a democratic system in Syria. Broadly, the Kurdish groups view the language policy as a question of recognition, and they demand that their language be given the same status as the Arabic language. In order to satisfy the demands and interests of this linguistic group, any future policymakers in Syria should take these into account when creating language policies.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An Assessment of the Socio-Economic Impact of Boko Haram Insurgency in the Northeast of Nigeria
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) BELLO, HIDAYA SHEHU; Muzaffer Şenel
    Using the frustration-aggression theory, this research could assess the socioeconomic impact of the Boko Haram Insurgency in the North East of Nigeria. This research was able to assess the find out that the Boko Haram insurgency has caused unbearable economic hardships in the North Eastern part of the country, and in extension in most parts of Nigeria. This research finds out that illiteracy/ignorance, unemployment, porous borders, arms proliferation, etc. have been the root causes of the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria; its aftermath is underdevelopment, poverty, fear, drug abuse, more IDPs, etc. The importance of this research is that it will help further researchers who want to research similar topics. This research emphasizes that adequate reforms, policies and regulations have to be unified from the three tiers of Federal, State and Local governments of Nigeria; border security will have to be strengthened, and there should be qualified control of the inflow of arms into the country, educating the civilians on self-defence should also take as a focal point.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Negotiating Cyprus: The Missing Dimension
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) ÖZYURT, NİYAZİ ONUR; İbrahi̇m Mensur Akgün
    The Cyprus Problem started as an ethnic conflict within a small circle and reached international dimensions by enlarging its circle. Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots are the founding duos and the two most populous communities on the island. Although historically the starting point differs according to the parties, the problem in Cyprus started to be shaped since the mid-1950s. This problem resulted in a Republic with the 1960 international treaties, the Republic of Cyprus. Only, the Republic of Cyprus did not last longevity. The Republic of Cyprus continued, but the rights of Turkish Cypriots remained on paper. The events of late 1963 and 1964 marked the beginning of insecurities at the far end between the parties to be experienced in the future. The Cyprus Negotiations is the general name of the numerous talks held for a solution. Discussion of the federal state system for the solution has been ongoing since the mid-1960s. However, the rapprochements experienced in the name of a solution served a purpose, except for a solution. The Cyprus negotiations have become a conundrum due to the different interpretations of the federal partnership by the parties. Consequently, it is apparent that the Federation proposal has been blocked and has been no concrete result achieved for years. In Cyprus problem, where alternative solutions may be discussed, proposals other than the Federation deserve serious consideration.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Turkstream Pipeline and Its Impact on Turkiye-Russia Energy Relations
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) ÜNSAL, GAMZE; Çağla Gül Yesevi
    The need for energy is growing every day in the modern world. As this requirement grows, so does the countries' dependence on energy, which increases the cost of energy importation for those countries. This thesis is based on the relations between Türkiye and Russia in light of the political and economic indicators centered on the TurkStream and its energy dependence. In this study, recent Türkiye-Russia energy relations are examined from the perspective of interdependence. The role of energy in Türkiye-Russia political relations and the importance of the TurkStream project will be discussed. The relations between Türkiye-Russia are improving, especially in the energy sector and the general economy. In this regard, the interdependence approach has been used to examine Türkiye's geographical importance, rising energy needs, and mutual economic interest/benefit variables between the two countries. In addition, this thesis will also examine how political problems affect the relations between Türkiye and Russia. Energy cooperation between Türkiye and Russia has improved despite political problems from time to time. This thesis will analyze how Türkiye-Russia relations are affected by the TurkStream project and whether these relations can continue in the future from a liberal perspective based on the theory of interdependence. This thesis will be a scenario for Türkiye-Russia relations in the future.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Türkiye and Russia Relations Within the Framework of Turkiye's Energy Policy
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) HAMZAÇEBİ, RÜMEYSA; Çağla Gül Yesevi
    The main factor that provides economic, social, political and many areas of development of countries is to use of energy. Energy resources are the most vital inputs of daily life and production is made for energy and industrial products. For this reason, those who govern the country and undertake managerial roles in energy have to supply energy through uninterrupted, reliable, timely, clean and cheap ways to meet the needs of society and the energy sector. Given the energy supply security, they must also provide energy at the most affordable prices and diversify these sources. In this regard, the energy policy put forward by the states should be self-renewing, consistent and realistic, and should also be target-oriented. This study focuses on how Türkiye became a role model in energy policy and this policy's repercussions on the bilateral relations between Türkiye and Russia. The main purpose of this thesis is to answer whether the relations between Türkiye and Russia are based on energy competition or strategic partnerships.
  • ItemOpen Access
    New Challenges After COVID-19 and Turkiye's Response
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) ÖZGÜR, EMRE; Bora Bayraktar
    Every age has its own phenomenon that shape the world order. In the medieval period, it was religion. In the enlightenment, it was science. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it was the rise of nationalism. In our age, developments in communication (most notably the internet) and transportation make globalization a critical concept. Especially with the Covid-19 pandemic, the advantages and disadvantages of globalization have become a hot topic. Whether or not we are on the verge of a new world order is on the agenda of academicians, researchers, strategy experts and policymakers. The President of the USA, Joe Biden, said that there's going to be a new world order and his country has to lead it. When the pandemic broke out, Chinese President Xi Jinping highlighted that from now on, the international community has to see humanity as one community. Also, Türkiye's President, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, emphasized that the world order will not be the same after the pandemic and the notion of state will evolve accordingly to today's needs. This study tries to explain different world orders in the past and the direction of the change in today's world. The reasons behind Türkiye's new economic and political paradigms and the way it adapts to today's conjuncture are analysed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Economic Diplomacy Through Free Trade Agreements (Moroccan Case)
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) MRANI, DOUAAE; Ahmet Cemal Ertürk
    Economic diplomacy is becoming more closely related to comprehensive development policy, especially in underdeveloped nations where echoes of the harsh rivalry of the global economy can still be heard. Morocco, classified as a developing country, is working to strengthen its economic diplomacy by opening up to the outside through concluding free trade agreements, which in turn shed light on the structural deficit in the Moroccan trade balance. This study aims to better understand Moroccan economic diplomacy, analyze its contribution while remembering all its limitations, evaluate the performance of Moroccan economic diplomacy, better understand the issues, and shed light on the practice of Moroccan economic diplomacy and its role in the integration of the Kingdom of Morocco into the global economy.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of the Us Policiy in Afghanistan 2001-2021
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) SADIKZADE, ALİ HÜMAYUN; Bora Bayraktar
    Afghanistan is located at the crossroads between central and south Asia, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. Due to its geographical position, Afghanistan has been a key country in Central Asia geographically, historically, culturally, and strategically. It borders Iran, Pakistan, China, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, which have rich energy resources. Situated at the crossroads of Central Asia and South Asia and China and the Middle East Afghanistan is on the middle corridor of Chinese belt and road. Due to its geopolitical characteristics, Afghanistan was subject to occupation in its history. At first, the country was exposed to Soviet occupation between 1979-1989 and then to the US occupation between 2001-2021. Al-Qaeda terrorist organization carried out many terrorist attacks around the world. The most important of these attacks is the 9/11/2001 attacks in which many innocent people lost their lives. The terrorist attack of 9/11 was the main cause of the US intervention in Afghanistan. The United States and NATO invaded Afghanistan 20 years ago in response to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 by Al Qaeda, harbored by the Taliban. After the 9/11 attacks, the U.S. President Jorge W. Bush unified the international community to participate in the fight against global war on terrorism to eradicate the sanctuary of Al- Qaida. Subsequently, counterterrorism became the core charter of Bush administration's foreign policy agenda which was stated in his National Security Strategy for Combating Terrorism 2003, known as Bush Doctrine. In 2009, Obama announced a new strategy that focuses on increasing unity in the country, and the counter-terrorism approach was replaced by the counter-resistance approach. Later, when he realized that the threat was not central, he explained the strategy of Afghanistan and Pakistan to disrupt, dismember, and defeat Al-Qaeda and its affiliates, in addition to establishing the Afghan National Security Forces. After the Obama presidency, President Donald Trump came to power and inherited a U.S. policy toward Afghanistan that was focusing on building Afghan security institutions and counterterrorism against a transnational threat. President Joe Biden in 2021, followed a different policy from other presidents and ended the occupation by withdrawing the American military forces in Afghanistan. Since the September 11 attacks, four presidents have changed in the United States. Although every president has implemented a new strategy regarding Afghanistan, it has resulted in failure. The invasion of Afghanistan, which started in 2001, ended in 2021. Therefore, this thesis aims to evaluate the US Policy in Afghanistan 2001-2021.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Toward Democracy and Democratisation: The Impact of the Donald Trump Administration on the Latest Authoritarian Actions of Vladimir Putin and Jinping Xi
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) OCHE, JAMESLEO; Nazlı Çağın Bilgili
    The key questions underpinning the current academic debate on the Trump administration are: How do we conceptualize the Trump 'America First' foreign policy? What are the actual executive orders, policies and actions of the Trump administration? How do these executive orders, policies and actions shift from U.S traditional foreign policy of democracy promotion to the authoritarian objectives of Putin and Xi? This study aims to find answers to these questions, why arguing that: 1) the Trump foreign policy centered on an isolationist grand strategy to U.S role in global politics; 2) the Trump administration is a huge gain for authoritarians like Putin and Xi, and a hug loss for democracy; 3) a decline of democracy in the U.S is likely to lead to global decline if a certain U.S administration does not prioritize democracy promotion.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Impact of Illiberal Regional Powers in the Western Promotion of Democracy in Russia and China Region: Russia and China in Perspectives
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) OMOWAYEOLA, GABRIEL OLABODE; Nazlı Çağın Bilgili
    Huntington (1991:13) in his 'Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century' presented three waves of democratization: the 'slow' wave of the 19th century in Western Europe and Northern America, the wave after WWII in 1945, and the mid-1970s in Southern Europe. There were democratic gains after the Revolutions of 1989 which culminated in the fall of the Iron Curtain. However, according to Freedom House reports, democracy growth has not only slowed alarmingly, but is on the decline, particularly in Russian and China regions. This study first argues that Russia and China weaponize their economic and military rise against democracy promotion. The second argument is that advanced democracies leave open domestic democratic weaknesses for Russia and China to exploit. This study seeks to examine the strategies of Russia and China in limiting democracy promotion in Ukraine and Georgia (Russian region), and Hong Kong and Taiwan (China region). The overall aim is to understand the model of democracy promotion necessary for the Russian and Chinese impact.
  • ItemOpen Access
    How Did Civil War in Syria Affect Turkey's Security Policy?
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) AYDIN, BÜŞRA SENA; Bora Bayraktar
    One of the recent challenges in the Muslim world has been a series of demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa, known as the "Arab Spring", started in 2010s. The protests in Tunisia in late December 2010 spurred a wave of unrest that struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen, before spreading to other countries. Among these countries, Syria underwent the most intense clashes between the government and rebel forces resulted in a civil war. With the civil war, Syria has become the venue for an ethnic, religious, and sectarian war, with the involvement of neighboring countries and global powers. As a result of the war, many people died, and many were forced to migrate to other countries. As a neighbor of Syria, Turkey became the country most affected by the crisis. In addition to the direct security threat because of its 911-kilometer land border, Turkey currently hosts nearly four million Syrian refugees. This study, therefore, analyzes how Turkey's security was damaged by the crisis. The study examines recent developments in the Middle East in general and in Syria specifically. It then analyzes in detail the current political, military, social implications of the crisis for Turkey's security. Keywords: Arab Spring, Syria civil war, Turkey's security.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Political and Social Participation of Afghan Women Post-2001
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2022) NUSRAT, FATEMA; Nazlı Çağın Bilgili
    Women in Afghanistan lived a life full of ups and downs throughout history. Despite their strengths and capabilities, they have always been the victims of cultural and traditional restrictions and conservatism. But when they were given a chance, they played extraordinary roles in different stages of life and proved to be as capable as men when it came to socio-political development. This study investigates the position of Afghan women throughout the twentieth century and in post-2001. It describes the supports provided and reforms initiated by different governments to empower women and enhance their participation in the power structure. At the same time, it highlights the challenges resulting from conservativism and extremism that hindered women's empowerment in Afghanistan and restricted them from practicing their rights and freedoms. The primary objective of this thesis is to reveal the improving conditions of Afghan women after 2001 as a result of supports provided by the international community and reforms initiated by the governments. Meanwhile, it evaluates women's political and socio-economic participation after 2001. It also analyzes the external and internal factors that led to women's empowerment and enhanced their participation in the power structure. This study mainly uses secondary data and follows a qualitative approach to analyze the findings.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Iranian Interventionist Policies in Iraq Between 2003 to 2020
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2021) KAMER, KAIS ABU; Bora Bayraktar
    Almost twenty years after the American invasion to Iraq, the country is still in political turmoil. Ethnic and sectarian division opened Iraq to foreign intervention and manipulation. Neighboring countries, other regional and political actors play role in even Iraqi daily affairs. For this reason, the political scene in Iraq seems to be difficult to understand. After the eight year long Iran-Iraq war in 1988 proved a resolved competitor of Iran, Iraq gradually came under the direct influence of Iran, following the US invasion in 2003. This research examines the Iranian foreign policy and the tools Iran had utilized to achieve near complete control over Iraq in the aftermath of the US invasion.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Language Teaching a Means of Cultural Diplomacy: A Framework for Arabic Language Teaching as a Means of Palestinian Cultural Diplomacy in 21st-Century Turkey
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2021) ABU JAZAR, JEHAD M.I.; Hazal Papuççular Kutlu
    Cultural diplomacy is profoundly about promoting culture by formal and informal means and actors, for the sake of advancing international relations. As such, language –the treasure-house of culture and its vehicle of transference– and language teaching are deemed crucial means of cultural diplomacy that countries use to provide a good image and build better understanding and communication for better cooperation on bilateral and multilateral bases. In this regard, this study, with reference to the role of language teaching as a means of cultural diplomacy and the current flourishing of Arabic language teaching and learning in Turkey, presents a framework for utilizing Arabic language teaching as a means of Palestinian cultural diplomacy that advances the Palestinian cause in Turkey. The research follows a 'constructive structure' –similar to Lego structure– in which recent arguments are based on the outcomes of earlier ones. Accordingly, a study of primary and secondary sources which presents a conceptual and practical background of language teaching as a means of cultural diplomacy was conducted. Besides, Data about the current endeavors of Arabic language teaching in Turkey regarding the Palestinian cause were collected by interviewing a group of Palestinian teachers and Turkish learners. The findings were applied to the Palestinian cultural traits and the Turkish stance towards the Palestinian cause, Arabs and Arabic language to draw a framework for a strategy of Palestinized Arabic language teaching in 21st-century Turkey. The study has revealed that the richness of the Arabic language and the welcoming Turkish environment are guarantors for the success of the Palestinized Arabic language teaching in contributing to the perseverance of the Turkish public and governmental support to the Palestinian cause, and the strengthening of the Palestinian strategic depth.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Striving for Superiority Between U.S. And China: The Rivalry Leading to the Trade War (1978-2020)
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi, 2021) KAYHAN, OSMAN SELMAN; İbrahim Mensur Akgün
    The relations between the United States and China is going through a difficult period in terms of International Political Economy. The adversity leads the world into apprehension regarding the peace and stability in the world order. The rapid growth of China following the 1978 economic reform and modernization process was a critical determinant for their future policies. Despite the obstacles which decelerate the sudden growth of China, the impact of the country to the world politics was still outrageous. Therefore, the favorable amity between the United States and China in the aftermath of the economic reforms turned into agnosticism. As the real political intention of the rising China was mysterious to the United States officials, the process of transition in the relations was critical. The changing power dynamics after the end of the Cold War had a significant impact on the policies of the countries. The unexpectedly successful rise of China brought about many questions in relation to their intention whether they will follow policies in line with the status quo or their own national interests. The China perception in the United States evolved into a negative perspective following the tragic event in the Tiananmen Square where the demonstrations were surpassed in a violent way. The China threat perception gained a significant popularity across the country and was mentioned in scholarly articles. Even though the China threat perceptions appeared to be only as discourses, the fact that it was supported by the public and scholars was critical in order to have impact and pressure on the policymaking mechanism of the United States. However, the United States was not in favor of taking a negative stance against China considering their increased impact in the world politics. In this line, the government of the United States followed a strategic partnership policy. However, the ongoing rise of China increased the criticism against the engagement policies of the United States. The fact that China threat discourses were supported by the theoretical frameworks and increased military expenditures proved that the discourses may turn into reality. This process brought about questions regarding rise of China and the possible threat to an existing world order. The reaction of the United States, in this case, is critical whether they shape the policies towards China in line with the threat perceptions or continue to follow moderate policies.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Turkish-Syrian relations since the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi / Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü / Uluslararası İktisat Ana Bilim Dalı / Uluslararası İlişkiler (İngilizce) Bilim Dalı, 2021) Abualhayja'a, Nayfen İsmail Taha; Kutlu, Hazal Papuççular; NAYFEN ISMAIL TAHA ABUALHAYJA'A
    Bu araştırma tezi, 1923 yılında Türkiye Cumhuriyeti'nin kuruluşundan bu yana Türkiye-Suriye ilişkilerini incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Türkiye, jeopolitik ve tarihsel etkilerin yanı sıra yerel, bölgesel ve uluslararası olaylardan etkilenen geniş nüfuslu bir ülkenin parçasıdır. Öte yandan, Suriye, sanatı ve kültürel gelişimi ile bilinen eski ülkelerden biridir. Türkiye-Suriye ilişkileri yıllar içinde diplomatik işbirliğinden askeri-politik rekabete doğru önemli ölçüde değişmektedir. Farklılıklarına rağmen, Türkiye ve Suriye, Kürt sorunu, bölgesel istikrar, Orta Doğu'daki siyasi olayların tekdüzeliği ve ticari ilişkiler dahil olmak üzere bir dizi ortak çıkarları paylaşmaktadır. Bu tez, beş bölüme ayrılmıştır, Türkiye'nin Suriye'ye yönelik dış politikasının ayrıntılı analizi ile Türkiye ve Suriye'nin dış politikasında değişikliklere yol açan faktörleri göstermektedir. Ancak, sonuçlara odaklanarak tez, bölgenin barış arayışı devam ettiği sürece Türkiye'nin siyasi politikalarının şüphesiz ilerleyeceğini ve tüm taraflarca memnuniyetle karşılanacağını belirtmektedir. Bu araştırma çalışması, gelecek araştırmacılara ve okuyuculara bir fikir verecektir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Dış politika, istikrar, diplomatik ilişkiler.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The impacts of multinational companies on international economy and their political role in guiding countries policies
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi / Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü / Uluslararası İlişkiler Ana Bilim Dalı / Uluslararası İlişkiler (İngilizce) Bilim Dalı, 2021) Zerdaoui, Fatima; Ertürk, Ahmet Cemal
    Bu araştırma tezi, hem araştırmacıların hem de politikacıların artan ilgi odağı haline gelen çok uluslu şirketleri araştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu araştırma aynı zamanda bu şirketlerin ülke siyasetine rehberlik etmedeki rolünü araştırmayı ve uluslararası kuruluşlar üzerinde sahip oldukları farklı etki çeşitleri hakkında ek bir anlayış sunmaya amaçlanmaktadır. Bununla birlikte, çok uluslu şirketler, küresel bir ekonomi yaratma sürecinde önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Aynı zamanda, üretim faaliyetletinin hammadde, düşük maliyetli işgücü ve geniş bir Pazar arayışı içinde bir dizi ülkeye göç etmesine de katkıda bulunmaktadır. Bu araştırmanın önemi, çok uluslu şirketler tarafından yönetilen doğrudan yabancı yatırımları çekmek için siyasi ve ekonomik yasaları ele alırken veya geliştirirken karar vericilerin kapsamlı bir bakış açısı oluşturulmasına yaptığı katkıda yatmaktadır. Ayrıca taz, araştırma sorularını değerlendirerek, ikincil kaynaklardan yararlanarak sonuçlara ulaşmıştır. Bununla birlikte, bu çalışma, çok uluslu şirketlere, ekonomi üzerindeki olumlu etkilerine ve ülke politikalarına rehberlik etmedeki siyasi rolüne bol miktarda bilgi ve görüş kazandırmak için araştırmacılara ve akademisyenlere fayda sağlacaktır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Çok uluslu şirketler, yatırım, politika koyucuları
  • PublicationOpen Access
    ECOWAS historical assessment and future legacies
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi / Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü / Uluslararası İlişkiler Ana Bilim Dalı / Uluslararası İlişkiler (İngilizce) Bilim Dalı, 2021) Babalola, John Abiodun; Akgün, İbrahim Mensur
    Bu tez, ECOWAS'ın doğuşunun tarihsel eğilimini, oluşumunu ve doğduğu 1975'ten bu yana genel performansını anlama sorununu çözmeye yönelik olup, ECOWAS'ın Batı Afrika devletlerini birbirine bağlayan tek örgüt olduğuna inanılmaktadır. amaç, bölgeyi ekonomik ve siyasi olarak bütünleştirmek ve üye ülkeler arasında birliği teşvik etmektir. ECOWAS, 1975 yılında imzalanan ve kuruluşuna damgasını vuran Lagos Antlaşması ile 15 üyeden oluşmaktadır. Batı Afrika devletlerini birbirine entegre etmek, farklı sömürge yönetimi, diller, para birimi ve bölgeden oluşan çok etnik grup özelliği nedeniyle biraz zordu. Bu nedenle tez, topluluğun şimdiye kadarki performansını incelemektedir. Bu tez, ECOWAS'ın varlığıyla ilgili bazı soruları kapsamlı bir şekilde yanıtlamaktadır. ECOWAS'ın kökenini açıklar ve odaklanır, organizasyonun tarihine, fikrin ortaya çıktığı dönemden itibaren, alt bölgedeki ülkeleri birleştirmek için ilk hareket olan CFA para biriminin frankofon ülkeler tarafından bir araya getirildiği 1945 yılından bu yana bakar. Birlikte ve daha sonra fikir, sonuçlanmadan ve Mayıs 1975'te Lagos'ta bir anlaşma imzalanmadan önce Batı Afrika devletlerinin tüm bölgelerine yayıldı. Çalışmanın ana fikri, okuyucuyu Afrika'daki alt bölge ile tanıştırmak ve ECOWAS'ın çalışıp çalışmadığı ile ilgili sıkça sorulan soruları ve ayrıca ECOWAS'a ihtiyaç olup olmadığı, belki de olması gerektiği sorusuna eşit derecede cevap vermektir. çözülecek ve her üye devlet farklı yollara gidecek, tüm bunları temel problem olarak gören tez, bu sorunları çözmeyi ve bu konuya daha net bir resim vermeyi amaçlamakta, böylece net bir resim oluşturulacaktır. Tez, alt bölgeden bahseden bazı makaleler, ders kitapları ve dergiler kullanılarak yürütülmüştür. ECOWAS yıllık raporu, ECOWAS'ın Yakınsama Raporu, ECOWAS Komisyonu Yıllık Raporu ve diğer zengin makaleler gibi ECOWAS raporlarına, amaçlanan proje çalışmasına ilişkin net ve olgusal bir kanıt olması için işin hakkını vermek için başvurulmuştur. Sonuç olarak, bu çalışma ECOWAS'ın 1975'ten bugüne kadar olan performansını değerlendirmek ve örgütün tüm üye devletlerin entegrasyon süreci üzerindeki işleyişini ve alt bölgedeki devletler arasında birliği ne kadar iyi desteklediğini açıklamak için zengin bir kaynaktır. Topluluğun iyileştirilmesi için bazı öneriler.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The European Union's impact on women's rights in Turkey
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi / Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü / Uluslararası İlişkiler Ana Bilim Dalı / Uluslararası İlişkiler (İngilizce) Bilim Dalı, 2020) Kavak, Yasemin; Ertürk, Ahmet Camal
    Türkiye ve Avrupa Birliği (AB) ilişkileri, Türkiye'nin tam üyelik başvurusu yapmasıyla 1959 yılında başlamıştır. Türkiye'nin resmi adaylığı açıklandığından beri, bu konudaki literatür önemli bir yer edinmiştir. Bu süre zarfında, Türkiye de kadın hakları hususunda bir dönüşüm sürecine girmiştir. Bir başka deyişle, Avrupa Birliği, AB Kurumları ve de anlaşmaları ile cinsiyet eşitliğini teşvik etmeye çalışmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra, Türk Medeni Kanunu ve Anayasası kadın haklarını önemli bir şekilde etkileyen bir takım gelişmeler gerçekleştirmiştir. Ayrıca, Avrupa Birliği entegrasyon süreci önde gelen iki önemli sivil toplum kuruluşu ile desteklenmiştir. Bunlardan biri KA-DER; Kadın Adayları Destekleme Derneği ve diğeri ise KAGİDER; Kadın Girişimcileri Derneği. Bahsedilen her iki sivil toplum kuruluşları kadınları karar alma mekanizmalarına ve kadın istihdamına teşvik etmek açısından etkili araçlar olmuşlardır. Bu çalışma, Avrupa Birliği katılım öncesi süreçte kadın hakları ışığı altında literatür incelemesiyle hem gelişmeleri hem de eksiklikleri yansıtmayı hedeflemektedir. Aynı zamanda, AKP yönetimi boyunca, Türkiye ve AB ilişkileri ve kadın hakları üzerindeki etkisine değinmiştir. Bu tezin amacı Avrupa Birliğinin Türkiye'deki kadın haklarına etkilerini incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu nedenle, bu çalışma, Türkiye'nin Avrupa Birliği entegrasyonu kadın haklarını nasıl etkilediği ve Türkiye'deki kadın haklarını destekleyen faktörlerin neler olduğu sorusu üzerine kurulmuştur. Bu çalışma Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan'ın cinsiyet eşitliğine karşı geleneksel ataerkil tutumuna değinmektedir ve bu durumun Avrupa ve Türkiye ilişkilerini olumsuz yönde etkilemesine zemin hazırlamıştır. Son olarak, bu çalışma Avrupa Birliği Komisyonu tarafından 1999-2019 yıllarında düzenlenen İlerleme Raporlarını inceleyerek kadın hakları hususunda gerçekleşen önemli gelişmeleri ve de sorunları değerlendirmeye çalışmıştır.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The ideological foundations of Muslim Brotherhood and Wahhabism and their collusions against Nasserism
    (İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi / Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü / Uluslararası İlişkiler Ana Bilim Dalı / Uluslararası İlişkiler Bilim Dalı, 2020) Abushaaban, Hussein T. H.; Papuççular, Hazal; HUSSEIN T. H. ABUSHAABAN
    Arap coğrafyasındaki en önde gelen ve en etkili Siyasal İslam hareketleri, her biri kendi teolojik, teorik ve ideolojik temelleri olan Mısır'daki Müslüman Kardeşler ve Suudi Arabistan'daki Vehhabilik'tir. Bu temel farklılıklardaki karşılıklı karışıklıklar, laik Milliyetçiliğin doğuşu, Arapçılık, ve Nasırizm, Suudi Vehhabiliği ile Mısır Müslüman Kardeşler arasında işbirliği ve koordinasyon fırsatı oluşturdu. Suudilere ve diğer Arap Körfez Şeyhliklerine göre, Milliyetçi hareketliliğin, halklarını yönetmekteki meşruiyetleri açısından gittikçe artan bir zorluk olduğu düşünülmektedir. Mısır Müslüman Kardeşlere göre Nasırizm'in Milliyetçi projesi, ilkesel olarak, kendi İslami projelerinin bir karşı-ideolojisidir. Bu nedenle, Nasırizm ve Sadatiti dönemlerinde, Soğuk Savaşın zirvesinde, Nasır'ın Milliyetçilik projesine ve Sovyet müttefiklerine karşı Birleşik Krallık, Birleşik Devletler, Vehhabilik ve Müslüman Kardeşler arasında beklenmedik bir koalisyon kuruldu. Batılı Güçler ile Müslüman Kardeşler arasındaki işbirliği hiç bir zaman resmiyet kazanmamasına rağmen, bazı ifşa olmuş belgelerin ABD ve Batılı istihbarat servislerinin himayesinde ve denetiminde, İsviçre ve Almanya'yı Kardeşler için İslamiyet'i yaymak amaçlı medya kampanyalarını koordine etmede ve takviye stratejilerinde merkez olarak kullandığına işaret etmektedir. Batılı himayelerin ve Suudi Arabistan'ın Müslüm Kardeşlerin İslamcılığını ve genel İslamcılığı finanse etmesi dini yükümlülük veya nezaketten kaynaklanmaktan ziyade Batının Sovyet yayılmacılığına karşı çevreleme stratejisinden motive olmuştur.